A newer form of shingles vaccine reduced outbreaks of the painful rash among patients who were transplanted with their own stem cells, according to a study led by a Duke Health researcher and published today in JAMA.The vaccine appears to offer protection from one of the most common and painful side effects of cell therapy and shows promise for patients with immune-compromising conditions.
"Without the flu drug, 100 percent of the infected mice died, and with the treatment, 100 percent survived," said Jacco Boon, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine and the paper's senior author.
Now, researchers comparing American, Pacific and Southeast Asian subtypes of the virus in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have concluded that the American-subtype strain has the highest ability to grow both in vitro and in vivo.
Co-author Florian Krammer, professor of microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai where the analysis of the data took place, said the study shows that antibodies that target the conserved stalk can provide protection from natural infection with H1N1 virus.
Published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, the study uses modern day scientific technology and delves through literature published in The Lancet from the time, to not only track the origins of the virus, but to seek how we can use this information to learn from the past to prevent the spread of an influenza pandemic.
"We now know for sure that Zika virus infection during pregnancy can affect the unborn fetus in such a way that the child develops microcephaly and other severe symptoms," explains Prof Felix Drexler, a virologist at the Charité who has been developing diagnostic tests for Zika and other viruses at the DZIF.
Antiviral antibodies produced by survivors of Ebola infection continue to evolve and improve after recovery, according to a detailed study of the immune responses of four people who received care at Emory University Hospital in 2014.In particular, high levels of neutralizing antibodies- thought to be key to protecting someone against deadly infection -- didn't appear in patients' blood until months after they left the hospital.
In mouse studies, FluA-20 prevented infection or illness when the animals were exposed to four different influenza A viral subtypes that cause disease in humans.
The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the dengue virus interacts with another viral protein called NS4A-2K-4B to enable viral replication, according to a study published May 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Ralf Bartenschlager of the University of Heidelberg, and colleagues.
The deadly Nipah virus, which is carried by bats and occasionally infects people, is more likely to be transmitted from person to person when the infected patient is older, male and/or has breathing difficulties, according to a study co-led by scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
In a breakthrough that could lead to a simple and inexpensive test for Ebola virus disease, researchers have generated two antibodies to the deadly virus. The antibodies, which are inexpensive to produce, potentially could be used in a simple filter paper test to detect Ebola virus and the related Marburg virus.
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital led by Raina Fichorova, MD, PhD, in collaboration with an international team, tested a laboratory-made version of a naturally occurring protein (recombinant fragment of human Surfactant Protein D or rfhSP-D) on bioengineered vaginal tissues, immune cells and microbes to determine if the drug candidate could help prevent HIV transmission safely.
These findings correlate with human cases of West Nile virus, which also occur at higher rates in western Iowa than in other parts of the state, said Ryan Smith, assistant professor of entomology and director of the medical entomology laboratory.
But H3N2 is different: "H3N2 viruses -- the most important human viruses among the four strains circulating -- do not grow well in eggs or even in MDCK cells, which are most commonly used for influenza virus propagation," says Kawaoka.
New studies from Lawson Health Research Institute and Western University have found for the first time that HIV can be transmitted through the sharing of equipment used to prepare drugs before injection and that a simple intervention -- heating the equipment with a cigarette lighter for 10 seconds -- can destroy the HIV virus, preventing that transmission.
Mount Sinai researchers found significant delays in reporting human cases of West Nile virus, hampering real-time forecasting of the potentially deadly mosquito-borne disease, according to a study in the JAMA Network Open in April.
Conducted by Professor Fariba Deghani, Dr Golnoosh Torabian and Dr Peter Valtchev as part of the ARC Training Centre for the Australian Food Processing Industry that was established within the university's Faculty of Engineering and IT, the study showed that compounds from elderberries can directly inhibit the virus's entry and replication in human cells, and can help strengthen a person's immune response to the virus.
Clever researchers soon recognized the potential of CRISPR-Cas9 to serve as an all-purpose gene editing tool, useful not only for modifying selected regions throughout the entire bacterial genome, but the genomes of all living organisms, including humans.